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// Copyright 2020 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#![deny(missing_docs, unreachable_patterns)]

//! Netemul utilities.

/// Methods for creating and interacting with virtualized guests in netemul tests.
pub mod guest;

use std::{borrow::Cow, num::NonZeroU64, ops::DerefMut as _, path::Path};

use fidl_fuchsia_hardware_network as fnetwork;
use fidl_fuchsia_io as fio;
use fidl_fuchsia_net as fnet;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_dhcp as fnet_dhcp;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_dhcp_ext::{self as fnet_dhcp_ext, ClientProviderExt};
use fidl_fuchsia_net_ext::{self as fnet_ext};
use fidl_fuchsia_net_interfaces as fnet_interfaces;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_interfaces_admin as fnet_interfaces_admin;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_interfaces_ext as fnet_interfaces_ext;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_neighbor as fnet_neighbor;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_stack as fnet_stack;
use fidl_fuchsia_net_stack_ext::FidlReturn as _;
use fidl_fuchsia_netemul as fnetemul;
use fidl_fuchsia_netemul_network as fnetemul_network;
use fidl_fuchsia_posix_socket as fposix_socket;
use fidl_fuchsia_posix_socket_ext as fposix_socket_ext;
use fidl_fuchsia_posix_socket_packet as fposix_socket_packet;
use fidl_fuchsia_posix_socket_raw as fposix_socket_raw;
use fnet_interfaces_admin::GrantForInterfaceAuthorization;
use fuchsia_zircon as zx;

use anyhow::{anyhow, Context as _};
use futures::{
    future::{FutureExt as _, TryFutureExt as _},
    SinkExt as _, StreamExt as _, TryStreamExt as _,
};
use net_declare::fidl_subnet;

type Result<T = ()> = std::result::Result<T, anyhow::Error>;

/// The default MTU used in netemul endpoint configurations.
pub const DEFAULT_MTU: u16 = 1500;

/// The devfs path at which endpoints show up.
pub const NETDEVICE_DEVFS_PATH: &'static str = "class/network";

/// Returns the full path for a device node `node_name` relative to devfs root.
pub fn devfs_device_path(node_name: &str) -> std::path::PathBuf {
    std::path::Path::new(NETDEVICE_DEVFS_PATH).join(node_name)
}

/// Creates a common netemul endpoint configuration for tests.
pub fn new_endpoint_config(
    mtu: u16,
    mac: Option<fnet::MacAddress>,
) -> fnetemul_network::EndpointConfig {
    fnetemul_network::EndpointConfig { mtu, mac: mac.map(Box::new) }
}

/// A test sandbox backed by a [`fnetemul::SandboxProxy`].
///
/// `TestSandbox` provides various utility methods to set up network realms for
/// use in testing. The lifetime of the `TestSandbox` is tied to the netemul
/// sandbox itself, dropping it will cause all the created realms, networks, and
/// endpoints to be destroyed.
#[must_use]
pub struct TestSandbox {
    sandbox: fnetemul::SandboxProxy,
}

impl TestSandbox {
    /// Creates a new empty sandbox.
    pub fn new() -> Result<TestSandbox> {
        fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol::<fnetemul::SandboxMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to sandbox protocol")
            .map(|sandbox| TestSandbox { sandbox })
    }

    /// Creates a realm with `name` and `children`.
    pub fn create_realm<'a, I>(
        &'a self,
        name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
        children: I,
    ) -> Result<TestRealm<'a>>
    where
        I: IntoIterator,
        I::Item: Into<fnetemul::ChildDef>,
    {
        let (realm, server) = fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnetemul::ManagedRealmMarker>()?;
        let name = name.into();
        let () = self.sandbox.create_realm(
            server,
            fnetemul::RealmOptions {
                name: Some(name.clone().into_owned()),
                children: Some(children.into_iter().map(Into::into).collect()),
                ..Default::default()
            },
        )?;
        Ok(TestRealm { realm, name, _sandbox: self })
    }

    /// Creates a realm with no components.
    pub fn create_empty_realm<'a>(
        &'a self,
        name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    ) -> Result<TestRealm<'a>> {
        self.create_realm(name, std::iter::empty::<fnetemul::ChildDef>())
    }

    /// Connects to the sandbox's `NetworkContext`.
    fn get_network_context(&self) -> Result<fnetemul_network::NetworkContextProxy> {
        let (ctx, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnetemul_network::NetworkContextMarker>()?;
        let () = self.sandbox.get_network_context(server)?;
        Ok(ctx)
    }

    /// Connects to the sandbox's `NetworkManager`.
    pub fn get_network_manager(&self) -> Result<fnetemul_network::NetworkManagerProxy> {
        let ctx = self.get_network_context()?;
        let (network_manager, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnetemul_network::NetworkManagerMarker>()?;
        let () = ctx.get_network_manager(server)?;
        Ok(network_manager)
    }

    /// Connects to the sandbox's `EndpointManager`.
    pub fn get_endpoint_manager(&self) -> Result<fnetemul_network::EndpointManagerProxy> {
        let ctx = self.get_network_context()?;
        let (ep_manager, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnetemul_network::EndpointManagerMarker>()?;
        let () = ctx.get_endpoint_manager(server)?;
        Ok(ep_manager)
    }

    /// Creates a new empty network with default configurations and `name`.
    pub async fn create_network<'a>(
        &'a self,
        name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    ) -> Result<TestNetwork<'a>> {
        let name = name.into();
        let netm = self.get_network_manager()?;
        let (status, network) = netm
            .create_network(
                &name,
                &fnetemul_network::NetworkConfig {
                    latency: None,
                    packet_loss: None,
                    reorder: None,
                    ..Default::default()
                },
            )
            .await
            .context("create_network FIDL error")?;
        let () = zx::Status::ok(status).context("create_network failed")?;
        let network = network
            .ok_or_else(|| anyhow::anyhow!("create_network didn't return a valid network"))?
            .into_proxy()?;
        Ok(TestNetwork { network, name, sandbox: self })
    }

    /// Creates new networks and endpoints as specified in `networks`.
    pub async fn setup_networks<'a>(
        &'a self,
        networks: Vec<fnetemul_network::NetworkSetup>,
    ) -> Result<TestNetworkSetup<'a>> {
        let ctx = self.get_network_context()?;
        let (status, handle) = ctx.setup(&networks).await.context("setup FIDL error")?;
        let () = zx::Status::ok(status).context("setup failed")?;
        let handle = handle
            .ok_or_else(|| anyhow::anyhow!("setup didn't return a valid handle"))?
            .into_proxy()?;
        Ok(TestNetworkSetup { _setup: handle, _sandbox: self })
    }

    /// Creates a new unattached endpoint with default configurations and `name`.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `name` if it exceeds the maximum length.
    pub async fn create_endpoint<'a, S>(&'a self, name: S) -> Result<TestEndpoint<'a>>
    where
        S: Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    {
        self.create_endpoint_with(name, new_endpoint_config(DEFAULT_MTU, None)).await
    }

    /// Creates a new unattached endpoint with the provided configuration.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `name` if it exceeds the maximum length.
    pub async fn create_endpoint_with<'a>(
        &'a self,
        name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
        config: fnetemul_network::EndpointConfig,
    ) -> Result<TestEndpoint<'a>> {
        let name = name.into();
        let epm = self.get_endpoint_manager()?;
        let (status, endpoint) =
            epm.create_endpoint(&name, &config).await.context("create_endpoint FIDL error")?;
        let () = zx::Status::ok(status).context("create_endpoint failed")?;
        let endpoint = endpoint
            .ok_or_else(|| anyhow::anyhow!("create_endpoint didn't return a valid endpoint"))?
            .into_proxy()?;
        Ok(TestEndpoint { endpoint, name, _sandbox: self })
    }
}

/// A set of virtual networks and endpoints.
///
/// Created through [`TestSandbox::setup_networks`].
#[must_use]
pub struct TestNetworkSetup<'a> {
    _setup: fnetemul_network::SetupHandleProxy,
    _sandbox: &'a TestSandbox,
}

impl TestNetworkSetup<'_> {
    /// Extracts the proxy to the backing setup handle.
    ///
    /// Note that this defeats the lifetime semantics that ensure the sandbox in
    /// which these networks were created lives as long as the networks. The caller
    /// of [`TestNetworkSetup::into_proxy`] is responsible for ensuring that the
    /// sandbox outlives the networks.
    pub fn into_proxy(self) -> fnetemul_network::SetupHandleProxy {
        let Self { _setup, _sandbox: _ } = self;
        _setup
    }
}

/// [`TestInterface`] configuration.
#[derive(Default)]
pub struct InterfaceConfig<'a> {
    /// Optional interface name.
    pub name: Option<Cow<'a, str>>,
    /// Optional default route metric.
    pub metric: Option<u32>,
}

/// A realm within a netemul sandbox.
#[must_use]
#[derive(Clone)]
pub struct TestRealm<'a> {
    realm: fnetemul::ManagedRealmProxy,
    name: Cow<'a, str>,
    _sandbox: &'a TestSandbox,
}

impl<'a> std::fmt::Debug for TestRealm<'a> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> std::result::Result<(), std::fmt::Error> {
        let Self { realm: _, name, _sandbox } = self;
        f.debug_struct("TestRealm").field("name", name).finish_non_exhaustive()
    }
}

impl<'a> TestRealm<'a> {
    /// Connects to a protocol within the realm.
    pub fn connect_to_protocol<S>(&self) -> Result<S::Proxy>
    where
        S: fidl::endpoints::DiscoverableProtocolMarker,
    {
        (|| {
            let (proxy, server_end) =
                fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<S>().context("create proxy")?;
            let () = self
                .connect_to_protocol_with_server_end(server_end)
                .context("connect to protocol name with server end")?;
            Result::Ok(proxy)
        })()
        .context(S::DEBUG_NAME)
    }

    /// Opens the diagnostics directory of a component.
    pub fn open_diagnostics_directory(&self, child_name: &str) -> Result<fio::DirectoryProxy> {
        let (proxy, server_end) = fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fio::DirectoryMarker>().unwrap();
        let () = self
            .realm
            .open_diagnostics_directory(child_name, server_end)
            .context("open diagnostics dir")?;
        Ok(proxy)
    }

    /// Connects to a protocol within the realm.
    pub fn connect_to_protocol_with_server_end<S: fidl::endpoints::DiscoverableProtocolMarker>(
        &self,
        server_end: fidl::endpoints::ServerEnd<S>,
    ) -> Result {
        self.realm
            .connect_to_protocol(S::PROTOCOL_NAME, None, server_end.into_channel())
            .context("connect to protocol")
    }

    /// Gets the moniker of the root of the managed realm.
    pub async fn get_moniker(&self) -> Result<String> {
        self.realm.get_moniker().await.context("failed to call get moniker")
    }

    /// Starts the specified child component of the managed realm.
    pub async fn start_child_component(&self, child_name: &str) -> Result {
        self.realm
            .start_child_component(child_name)
            .await?
            .map_err(zx::Status::from_raw)
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to start child component '{}'", child_name))
    }

    /// Stops the specified child component of the managed realm.
    pub async fn stop_child_component(&self, child_name: &str) -> Result {
        self.realm
            .stop_child_component(child_name)
            .await?
            .map_err(zx::Status::from_raw)
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to stop child component '{}'", child_name))
    }

    /// Use default endpoint/interface configuration and the specified address
    /// configuration to create a test interface.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `ep_name` if it exceeds the
    /// maximum length.
    pub async fn join_network<S>(
        &self,
        network: &TestNetwork<'a>,
        ep_name: S,
    ) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>>
    where
        S: Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    {
        self.join_network_with_if_config(network, ep_name, Default::default()).await
    }

    /// Use default endpoint configuration and the specified interface/address
    /// configuration to create a test interface.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `ep_name` if it exceeds the
    /// maximum length.
    pub async fn join_network_with_if_config<S>(
        &self,
        network: &TestNetwork<'a>,
        ep_name: S,
        if_config: InterfaceConfig<'a>,
    ) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>>
    where
        S: Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    {
        let endpoint =
            network.create_endpoint(ep_name).await.context("failed to create endpoint")?;
        self.install_endpoint(endpoint, if_config).await
    }

    /// Joins `network` with by creating an endpoint with `ep_config` and
    /// installing it into the realm with `if_config`.
    ///
    /// Returns a [`TestInterface`] corresponding to the added interface. The
    /// interface is guaranteed to have its link up and be enabled when this
    /// async function resolves.
    ///
    /// Note that this realm needs a Netstack for this operation to succeed.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `ep_name` if it exceeds the maximum length.
    pub async fn join_network_with(
        &self,
        network: &TestNetwork<'a>,
        ep_name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
        ep_config: fnetemul_network::EndpointConfig,
        if_config: InterfaceConfig<'a>,
    ) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>> {
        let endpoint = network
            .create_endpoint_with(ep_name, ep_config)
            .await
            .context("failed to create endpoint")?;
        self.install_endpoint(endpoint, if_config).await
    }

    /// Installs and configures the endpoint in this realm.
    ///
    /// Note that if `name` is not `None`, the string must fit within interface name limits.
    pub async fn install_endpoint(
        &self,
        endpoint: TestEndpoint<'a>,
        if_config: InterfaceConfig<'a>,
    ) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>> {
        let interface = endpoint
            .into_interface_in_realm_with_name(self, if_config)
            .await
            .context("failed to add endpoint")?;
        let () = interface.set_link_up(true).await.context("failed to start endpoint")?;
        let _did_enable: bool = interface
            .control()
            .enable()
            .await
            .map_err(anyhow::Error::new)
            .and_then(|res| {
                res.map_err(|e: fnet_interfaces_admin::ControlEnableError| {
                    anyhow::anyhow!("{:?}", e)
                })
            })
            .context("failed to enable interface")?;

        // Wait for Netstack to observe interface up so callers can safely
        // assume the state of the world on return.
        let interface_state = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fnet_interfaces::StateMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to fuchsia.net.interfaces/State")?;
        let () = fnet_interfaces_ext::wait_interface_with_id(
            fnet_interfaces_ext::event_stream_from_state(
                &interface_state,
                fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses::OnlyAssigned,
            )?,
            &mut fnet_interfaces_ext::InterfaceState::<()>::Unknown(interface.id()),
            |properties_and_state| properties_and_state.properties.online.then_some(()),
        )
        .await
        .context("failed to observe interface up")?;

        Ok(interface)
    }

    /// Adds a raw device connector to the realm's devfs.
    pub async fn add_raw_device(
        &self,
        path: &Path,
        device: fidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<fnetemul_network::DeviceProxy_Marker>,
    ) -> Result {
        let path = path.to_str().with_context(|| format!("convert {} to str", path.display()))?;
        self.realm
            .add_device(path, device)
            .await
            .context("add device")?
            .map_err(zx::Status::from_raw)
            .context("add device error")
    }

    /// Adds a device to the realm's virtual device filesystem.
    pub async fn add_virtual_device(&self, e: &TestEndpoint<'_>, path: &Path) -> Result {
        let (device, device_server_end) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_endpoints::<fnetemul_network::DeviceProxy_Marker>();
        e.get_proxy_(device_server_end).context("get proxy")?;

        self.add_raw_device(path, device).await
    }

    /// Removes a device from the realm's virtual device filesystem.
    pub async fn remove_virtual_device(&self, path: &Path) -> Result {
        let path = path.to_str().with_context(|| format!("convert {} to str", path.display()))?;
        self.realm
            .remove_device(path)
            .await
            .context("remove device")?
            .map_err(zx::Status::from_raw)
            .context("remove device error")
    }

    /// Creates a Datagram [`socket2::Socket`] backed by the implementation of
    /// `fuchsia.posix.socket/Provider` in this realm.
    pub async fn datagram_socket(
        &self,
        domain: fposix_socket::Domain,
        proto: fposix_socket::DatagramSocketProtocol,
    ) -> Result<socket2::Socket> {
        let socket_provider = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fposix_socket::ProviderMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to socket provider")?;

        fposix_socket_ext::datagram_socket(&socket_provider, domain, proto)
            .await
            .context("failed to call socket")?
            .context("failed to create socket")
    }

    /// Creates a raw [`socket2::Socket`] backed by the implementation of
    /// `fuchsia.posix.socket.raw/Provider` in this realm.
    pub async fn raw_socket(
        &self,
        domain: fposix_socket::Domain,
        association: fposix_socket_raw::ProtocolAssociation,
    ) -> Result<socket2::Socket> {
        let socket_provider = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fposix_socket_raw::ProviderMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to socket provider")?;
        let sock = socket_provider
            .socket(domain, &association)
            .await
            .context("failed to call socket")?
            .map_err(|e| std::io::Error::from_raw_os_error(e.into_primitive()))
            .context("failed to create socket")?;

        Ok(fdio::create_fd(sock.into()).context("failed to create fd")?)
    }

    /// Creates a [`socket2::Socket`] backed by the implementation of
    /// [`fuchsia.posix.socket.packet/Provider`] in this realm.
    ///
    /// [`fuchsia.posix.socket.packet/Provider`]: fposix_socket_packet::ProviderMarker
    pub async fn packet_socket(&self, kind: fposix_socket_packet::Kind) -> Result<socket2::Socket> {
        let socket_provider = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fposix_socket_packet::ProviderMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to socket provider")?;

        fposix_socket_ext::packet_socket(&socket_provider, kind)
            .await
            .context("failed to call socket")?
            .context("failed to create socket")
    }

    /// Creates a Stream [`socket2::Socket`] backed by the implementation of
    /// `fuchsia.posix.socket/Provider` in this realm.
    pub async fn stream_socket(
        &self,
        domain: fposix_socket::Domain,
        proto: fposix_socket::StreamSocketProtocol,
    ) -> Result<socket2::Socket> {
        let socket_provider = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fposix_socket::ProviderMarker>()
            .context("failed to connect to socket provider")?;
        let sock = socket_provider
            .stream_socket(domain, proto)
            .await
            .context("failed to call socket")?
            .map_err(|e| std::io::Error::from_raw_os_error(e.into_primitive()))
            .context("failed to create socket")?;

        Ok(fdio::create_fd(sock.into()).context("failed to create fd")?)
    }

    /// Shuts down the realm.
    ///
    /// It is often useful to call this method to ensure that the realm
    /// completes orderly shutdown before allowing other resources to be dropped
    /// and get cleaned up, such as [`TestEndpoint`]s, which components in the
    /// realm might be interacting with.
    pub async fn shutdown(&self) -> Result {
        let () = self.realm.shutdown().context("call shutdown")?;
        let events = self
            .realm
            .take_event_stream()
            .try_collect::<Vec<_>>()
            .await
            .context("error on realm event stream")?;
        // Ensure there are no more events sent on the event stream after `OnShutdown`.
        assert_matches::assert_matches!(events[..], [fnetemul::ManagedRealmEvent::OnShutdown {}]);
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Constructs an ICMP socket.
    pub async fn icmp_socket<Ip: ping::IpExt>(&self) -> Result<fuchsia_async::net::DatagramSocket> {
        let sock = self
            .datagram_socket(Ip::DOMAIN_FIDL, fposix_socket::DatagramSocketProtocol::IcmpEcho)
            .await
            .context("failed to create ICMP datagram socket")?;
        fuchsia_async::net::DatagramSocket::new_from_socket(sock)
            .context("failed to create async ICMP datagram socket")
    }

    /// Sends a single ICMP echo request to `addr`, and waits for the echo reply.
    pub async fn ping_once<Ip: ping::IpExt>(&self, addr: Ip::Addr, seq: u16) -> Result {
        let icmp_sock = self.icmp_socket::<Ip>().await?;

        const MESSAGE: &'static str = "hello, world";
        let (mut sink, mut stream) = ping::new_unicast_sink_and_stream::<
            Ip,
            _,
            { MESSAGE.len() + ping::ICMP_HEADER_LEN },
        >(&icmp_sock, &addr, MESSAGE.as_bytes());

        let send_fut = sink.send(seq).map_err(anyhow::Error::new);
        let recv_fut = stream.try_next().map(|r| match r {
            Ok(Some(got)) if got == seq => Ok(()),
            Ok(Some(got)) => Err(anyhow!("unexpected echo reply; got: {}, want: {}", got, seq)),
            Ok(None) => Err(anyhow!("echo reply stream ended unexpectedly")),
            Err(e) => Err(anyhow::Error::from(e)),
        });

        let ((), ()) = futures::future::try_join(send_fut, recv_fut)
            .await
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to ping from {} to {}", self.name, addr,))?;
        Ok(())
    }

    // TODO(https://fxbug.dev/42169456): Remove this function when pinging only
    // once is free from NUD-related issues and is guaranteed to succeed.
    /// Sends ICMP echo requests to `addr` on a 1-second interval until a response
    /// is received.
    pub async fn ping<Ip: ping::IpExt>(&self, addr: Ip::Addr) -> Result {
        let icmp_sock = self.icmp_socket::<Ip>().await?;

        const MESSAGE: &'static str = "hello, world";
        let (mut sink, stream) = ping::new_unicast_sink_and_stream::<
            Ip,
            _,
            { MESSAGE.len() + ping::ICMP_HEADER_LEN },
        >(&icmp_sock, &addr, MESSAGE.as_bytes());

        let mut seq = 0;
        let mut interval_stream =
            fuchsia_async::Interval::new(fuchsia_async::Duration::from_seconds(1));
        let mut stream = stream.fuse();
        loop {
            futures::select! {
                opt = interval_stream.next() => {
                    let () = opt.ok_or_else(|| anyhow!("ping interval stream ended unexpectedly"))?;
                    seq += 1;
                    let () = sink.send(seq).map_err(anyhow::Error::new).await?;
                }
                r = stream.try_next() => {
                    return match r {
                        Ok(Some(got)) if got <= seq => Ok(()),
                        Ok(Some(got)) => {
                            Err(anyhow!("unexpected echo reply; got: {}, want: {}", got, seq))
                        }
                        Ok(None) => Err(anyhow!("echo reply stream ended unexpectedly")),
                        Err(e) => Err(anyhow::Error::from(e)),
                    };
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /// Add a static neighbor entry.
    ///
    /// Useful to prevent NUD resolving too slow and causing spurious test failures.
    pub async fn add_neighbor_entry(
        &self,
        interface: u64,
        addr: fnet::IpAddress,
        mac: fnet::MacAddress,
    ) -> Result {
        let controller = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fnet_neighbor::ControllerMarker>()
            .context("connect to protocol")?;
        controller
            .add_entry(interface, &addr, &mac)
            .await
            .context("add_entry")?
            .map_err(zx::Status::from_raw)
            .context("add_entry failed")
    }

    /// Get a stream of interface events from a new watcher.
    pub fn get_interface_event_stream(
        &self,
    ) -> Result<impl futures::Stream<Item = std::result::Result<fnet_interfaces::Event, fidl::Error>>>
    {
        let interface_state = self
            .connect_to_protocol::<fnet_interfaces::StateMarker>()
            .context("connect to protocol")?;
        fnet_interfaces_ext::event_stream_from_state(
            &interface_state,
            fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses::OnlyAssigned,
        )
        .context("get interface event stream")
    }
}

/// A virtual Network.
///
/// `TestNetwork` is a single virtual broadcast domain backed by Netemul.
/// Created through [`TestSandbox::create_network`].
#[must_use]
pub struct TestNetwork<'a> {
    network: fnetemul_network::NetworkProxy,
    name: Cow<'a, str>,
    sandbox: &'a TestSandbox,
}

impl<'a> std::fmt::Debug for TestNetwork<'a> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> std::result::Result<(), std::fmt::Error> {
        let Self { name, network: _, sandbox: _ } = self;
        f.debug_struct("TestNetwork").field("name", name).finish_non_exhaustive()
    }
}

impl<'a> TestNetwork<'a> {
    /// Extracts the proxy to the backing network.
    ///
    /// Note that this defeats the lifetime semantics that ensure the sandbox in
    /// which this network was created lives as long as the network. The caller of
    /// [`TestNetwork::into_proxy`] is responsible for ensuring that the sandbox
    /// outlives the network.
    pub fn into_proxy(self) -> fnetemul_network::NetworkProxy {
        let Self { network, name: _, sandbox: _ } = self;
        network
    }

    /// Gets a FIDL client for the backing network.
    async fn get_client_end_clone(
        &self,
    ) -> Result<fidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<fnetemul_network::NetworkMarker>> {
        let network_manager =
            self.sandbox.get_network_manager().context("get_network_manager failed")?;
        let client = network_manager
            .get_network(&self.name)
            .await
            .context("get_network failed")?
            .with_context(|| format!("no network found with name {}", self.name))?;
        Ok(client)
    }

    /// Sets the configuration for this network to `config`.
    pub async fn set_config(&self, config: fnetemul_network::NetworkConfig) -> Result<()> {
        let status = self.network.set_config(&config).await.context("call set_config")?;
        zx::Status::ok(status).context("set config")
    }

    /// Attaches `ep` to this network.
    pub async fn attach_endpoint(&self, ep: &TestEndpoint<'a>) -> Result<()> {
        let status =
            self.network.attach_endpoint(&ep.name).await.context("attach_endpoint FIDL error")?;
        let () = zx::Status::ok(status).context("attach_endpoint failed")?;
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Creates a new endpoint with `name` attached to this network.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `name` if it exceeds the maximum length.
    pub async fn create_endpoint<S>(&self, name: S) -> Result<TestEndpoint<'a>>
    where
        S: Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
    {
        let ep = self
            .sandbox
            .create_endpoint(name)
            .await
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to create endpoint for network {}", self.name))?;
        let () = self.attach_endpoint(&ep).await.with_context(|| {
            format!("failed to attach endpoint {} to network {}", ep.name, self.name)
        })?;
        Ok(ep)
    }

    /// Creates a new endpoint with `name` and `config` attached to this network.
    ///
    /// Characters may be dropped from the front of `name` if it exceeds the maximum length.
    pub async fn create_endpoint_with(
        &self,
        name: impl Into<Cow<'a, str>>,
        config: fnetemul_network::EndpointConfig,
    ) -> Result<TestEndpoint<'a>> {
        let ep = self
            .sandbox
            .create_endpoint_with(name, config)
            .await
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to create endpoint for network {}", self.name))?;
        let () = self.attach_endpoint(&ep).await.with_context(|| {
            format!("failed to attach endpoint {} to network {}", ep.name, self.name)
        })?;
        Ok(ep)
    }

    /// Returns a fake endpoint.
    pub fn create_fake_endpoint(&self) -> Result<TestFakeEndpoint<'a>> {
        let (endpoint, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnetemul_network::FakeEndpointMarker>()
                .context("failed to create launcher proxy")?;
        let () = self.network.create_fake_endpoint(server)?;
        return Ok(TestFakeEndpoint { endpoint, _sandbox: self.sandbox });
    }

    /// Starts capturing packet in this network.
    ///
    /// The packet capture will be stored under a predefined directory:
    /// `/custom_artifacts`. More details can be found here:
    /// https://fuchsia.dev/fuchsia-src/development/testing/components/test_runner_framework?hl=en#custom-artifacts
    pub async fn start_capture(&self, name: &str) -> Result<PacketCapture> {
        let manager = self.sandbox.get_network_manager()?;
        let client = manager.get_network(&self.name).await?.expect("network must exist");
        zx::ok(self.network.start_capture(name).await?)?;
        let sync_proxy = fnetemul_network::NetworkSynchronousProxy::new(client.into_channel());
        Ok(PacketCapture { sync_proxy })
    }

    /// Stops packet capture in this network.
    pub async fn stop_capture(&self) -> Result<()> {
        Ok(self.network.stop_capture().await?)
    }
}

/// The object that has the same life as the packet capture, once the object is
/// dropped, the underlying packet capture will be stopped.
pub struct PacketCapture {
    sync_proxy: fnetemul_network::NetworkSynchronousProxy,
}

impl Drop for PacketCapture {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        self.sync_proxy.stop_capture(zx::Time::INFINITE).expect("failed to stop packet capture")
    }
}

/// A virtual network endpoint backed by Netemul.
#[must_use]
pub struct TestEndpoint<'a> {
    endpoint: fnetemul_network::EndpointProxy,
    name: Cow<'a, str>,
    _sandbox: &'a TestSandbox,
}

impl<'a> std::fmt::Debug for TestEndpoint<'a> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> std::result::Result<(), std::fmt::Error> {
        let Self { endpoint: _, name, _sandbox } = self;
        f.debug_struct("TestEndpoint").field("name", name).finish_non_exhaustive()
    }
}

impl<'a> std::ops::Deref for TestEndpoint<'a> {
    type Target = fnetemul_network::EndpointProxy;

    fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
        &self.endpoint
    }
}

/// A virtual fake network endpoint backed by Netemul.
#[must_use]
pub struct TestFakeEndpoint<'a> {
    endpoint: fnetemul_network::FakeEndpointProxy,
    _sandbox: &'a TestSandbox,
}

impl<'a> std::ops::Deref for TestFakeEndpoint<'a> {
    type Target = fnetemul_network::FakeEndpointProxy;

    fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
        &self.endpoint
    }
}

impl<'a> TestFakeEndpoint<'a> {
    /// Return a stream of frames.
    ///
    /// Frames will be yielded as they are read from the fake endpoint.
    pub fn frame_stream(
        &self,
    ) -> impl futures::Stream<Item = std::result::Result<(Vec<u8>, u64), fidl::Error>> + '_ {
        futures::stream::try_unfold(&self.endpoint, |ep| ep.read().map_ok(move |r| Some((r, ep))))
    }
}

/// Helper function to retrieve device and port information from a port
/// instance.
async fn to_netdevice_inner(
    port: fidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<fnetwork::PortMarker>,
) -> Result<(fidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<fnetwork::DeviceMarker>, fnetwork::PortId)> {
    let port = port.into_proxy()?;
    let (device, server_end) = fidl::endpoints::create_endpoints::<fnetwork::DeviceMarker>();
    let () = port.get_device(server_end)?;
    let port_id = port
        .get_info()
        .await
        .context("get port info")?
        .id
        .ok_or_else(|| anyhow::anyhow!("missing port id"))?;
    Ok((device, port_id))
}

impl<'a> TestEndpoint<'a> {
    /// Extracts the proxy to the backing endpoint.
    ///
    /// Note that this defeats the lifetime semantics that ensure the sandbox in
    /// which this endpoint was created lives as long as the endpoint. The caller of
    /// [`TestEndpoint::into_proxy`] is responsible for ensuring that the sandbox
    /// outlives the endpoint.
    pub fn into_proxy(self) -> fnetemul_network::EndpointProxy {
        let Self { endpoint, name: _, _sandbox: _ } = self;
        endpoint
    }

    /// Gets access to this device's virtual Network device.
    ///
    /// Note that an error is returned if the Endpoint is not a
    /// [`fnetemul_network::DeviceConnection::NetworkDevice`].
    pub async fn get_netdevice(
        &self,
    ) -> Result<(fidl::endpoints::ClientEnd<fnetwork::DeviceMarker>, fnetwork::PortId)> {
        let (port, server_end) = fidl::endpoints::create_endpoints();
        self.get_port(server_end)
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to get device connection for {}", self.name))?;
        to_netdevice_inner(port).await
    }

    /// Adds the [`TestEndpoint`] to the provided `realm` with an optional
    /// interface name.
    ///
    /// Returns the interface ID and control protocols on success.
    pub async fn add_to_stack(
        &self,
        realm: &TestRealm<'a>,
        InterfaceConfig { name, metric }: InterfaceConfig<'_>,
    ) -> Result<(
        u64,
        fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::Control,
        Option<fnet_interfaces_admin::DeviceControlProxy>,
    )> {
        let name = name.map(|n| {
            truncate_dropping_front(n.into(), fnet_interfaces::INTERFACE_NAME_LENGTH.into())
                .to_string()
        });
        let (device, port_id) = self.get_netdevice().await?;
        let installer = realm
            .connect_to_protocol::<fnet_interfaces_admin::InstallerMarker>()
            .context("connect to protocol")?;
        let device_control = {
            let (control, server_end) =
                fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnet_interfaces_admin::DeviceControlMarker>()
                    .context("create proxy")?;
            let () = installer.install_device(device, server_end).context("install device")?;
            control
        };
        let (control, server_end) =
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::Control::create_endpoints().context("create endpoints")?;
        let () = device_control
            .create_interface(
                &port_id,
                server_end,
                &fnet_interfaces_admin::Options { name, metric, ..Default::default() },
            )
            .context("create interface")?;
        let id = control.get_id().await.context("get id")?;
        Ok((id, control, Some(device_control)))
    }

    /// Like `into_interface_realm_with_name` but with default parameters.
    pub async fn into_interface_in_realm(self, realm: &TestRealm<'a>) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>> {
        self.into_interface_in_realm_with_name(realm, Default::default()).await
    }

    /// Consumes this `TestEndpoint` and tries to add it to the Netstack in
    /// `realm`, returning a [`TestInterface`] on success.
    pub async fn into_interface_in_realm_with_name(
        self,
        realm: &TestRealm<'a>,
        if_config: InterfaceConfig<'_>,
    ) -> Result<TestInterface<'a>> {
        let (id, control, device_control) = self
            .add_to_stack(realm, if_config)
            .await
            .with_context(|| format!("failed to add {} to realm {}", self.name, realm.name))?;
        Ok(TestInterface {
            endpoint: self,
            id,
            realm: realm.clone(),
            control,
            device_control,
            dhcp_client_task: futures::lock::Mutex::default(),
        })
    }
}

/// The DHCP client version.
#[derive(Copy, Clone, PartialEq, Debug)]
pub enum DhcpClientVersion {
    /// The in-Netstack2 DHCP client.
    InStack,
    /// The out-of-stack DHCP client.
    OutOfStack,
}

/// Abstraction for how DHCP client functionality is provided.
pub trait DhcpClient {
    /// The DHCP client version to be used.
    const DHCP_CLIENT_VERSION: DhcpClientVersion;
}

/// The in-Netstack2 DHCP client.
pub enum InStack {}

impl DhcpClient for InStack {
    const DHCP_CLIENT_VERSION: DhcpClientVersion = DhcpClientVersion::InStack;
}

/// The out-of-stack DHCP client.
pub enum OutOfStack {}

impl DhcpClient for OutOfStack {
    const DHCP_CLIENT_VERSION: DhcpClientVersion = DhcpClientVersion::OutOfStack;
}

/// A [`TestEndpoint`] that is installed in a realm's Netstack.
///
/// Note that a [`TestInterface`] adds to the reference count of the underlying
/// realm of its [`TestRealm`]. That is, a [`TestInterface`] that outlives the
/// [`TestRealm`] it created is sufficient to keep the underlying realm alive.
#[must_use]
pub struct TestInterface<'a> {
    endpoint: TestEndpoint<'a>,
    realm: TestRealm<'a>,
    id: u64,
    control: fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::Control,
    device_control: Option<fnet_interfaces_admin::DeviceControlProxy>,
    dhcp_client_task: futures::lock::Mutex<Option<fnet_dhcp_ext::testutil::DhcpClientTask>>,
}

impl<'a> std::fmt::Debug for TestInterface<'a> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> std::result::Result<(), std::fmt::Error> {
        let Self { endpoint, id, realm: _, control: _, device_control: _, dhcp_client_task: _ } =
            self;
        f.debug_struct("TestInterface")
            .field("endpoint", endpoint)
            .field("id", id)
            .finish_non_exhaustive()
    }
}

impl<'a> std::ops::Deref for TestInterface<'a> {
    type Target = fnetemul_network::EndpointProxy;

    fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
        &self.endpoint
    }
}

impl<'a> TestInterface<'a> {
    /// Gets the interface identifier.
    pub fn id(&self) -> u64 {
        self.id
    }

    /// Returns the endpoint associated with the interface.
    pub fn endpoint(&self) -> &TestEndpoint<'a> {
        &self.endpoint
    }

    /// Returns the interface's control handle.
    pub fn control(&self) -> &fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::Control {
        &self.control
    }

    /// Returns the authorization token for this interface.
    pub async fn get_authorization(&self) -> Result<GrantForInterfaceAuthorization> {
        Ok(self.control.get_authorization_for_interface().await?)
    }

    /// Connects to fuchsia.net.stack in this interface's realm.
    pub fn connect_stack(&self) -> Result<fnet_stack::StackProxy> {
        self.realm.connect_to_protocol::<fnet_stack::StackMarker>()
    }

    /// Add a direct route from the interface to the given subnet.
    pub async fn add_subnet_route(&self, subnet: fnet::Subnet) -> Result<()> {
        let subnet = fnet_ext::apply_subnet_mask(subnet);
        let entry =
            fnet_stack::ForwardingEntry { subnet, device_id: self.id, next_hop: None, metric: 0 };
        self.add_route(entry).await
    }

    /// Delete a direct route from the interface to the given subnet.
    pub async fn del_subnet_route(&self, subnet: fnet::Subnet) -> Result<()> {
        let subnet = fnet_ext::apply_subnet_mask(subnet);
        let entry =
            fnet_stack::ForwardingEntry { subnet, device_id: self.id, next_hop: None, metric: 0 };
        self.connect_stack()
            .context("connect stack")?
            .del_forwarding_entry(&entry)
            .await
            .squash_result()
            .with_context(|| {
                format!(
                    "stack.del_forwarding_entry({:?}) for endpoint {} failed",
                    entry, self.endpoint.name
                )
            })
    }

    /// Add a default route through the given address.
    pub async fn add_default_route(&self, next_hop: fnet::IpAddress) -> Result<()> {
        let default_route_target = match next_hop {
            fnet::IpAddress::Ipv4(fnet::Ipv4Address { addr: _ }) => {
                fidl_subnet!("0.0.0.0/0")
            }
            fnet::IpAddress::Ipv6(fnet::Ipv6Address { addr: _ }) => {
                fidl_subnet!("::/0")
            }
        };
        let entry = fnet_stack::ForwardingEntry {
            subnet: default_route_target,
            device_id: self.id,
            next_hop: Some(Box::new(next_hop)),
            metric: 0,
        };
        self.add_route(entry).await
    }

    async fn add_route(&self, entry: fnet_stack::ForwardingEntry) -> Result<()> {
        self.connect_stack()
            .context("connect stack")?
            .add_forwarding_entry(&entry)
            .await
            .squash_result()
            .with_context(|| {
                format!(
                    "stack.add_forwarding_entry({:?}) for endpoint {} failed",
                    entry, self.endpoint.name
                )
            })
    }

    /// Gets the interface's properties with assigned addresses.
    async fn get_properties(
        &self,
        included_addresses: fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses,
    ) -> Result<fnet_interfaces_ext::Properties> {
        let interface_state = self.realm.connect_to_protocol::<fnet_interfaces::StateMarker>()?;
        let properties = fnet_interfaces_ext::existing(
            fnet_interfaces_ext::event_stream_from_state(&interface_state, included_addresses)?,
            fnet_interfaces_ext::InterfaceState::<()>::Unknown(self.id),
        )
        .await
        .context("failed to get existing interfaces")?;
        match properties {
            fnet_interfaces_ext::InterfaceState::Unknown(id) => Err(anyhow::anyhow!(
                "could not find interface {} for endpoint {}",
                id,
                self.endpoint.name
            )),
            fnet_interfaces_ext::InterfaceState::Known(
                fnet_interfaces_ext::PropertiesAndState { properties, state: () },
            ) => Ok(properties),
        }
    }

    /// Gets the interface's addresses.
    pub async fn get_addrs(
        &self,
        included_addresses: fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses,
    ) -> Result<Vec<fnet_interfaces_ext::Address>> {
        let fnet_interfaces_ext::Properties {
            addresses,
            id: _,
            name: _,
            device_class: _,
            online: _,
            has_default_ipv4_route: _,
            has_default_ipv6_route: _,
        } = self.get_properties(included_addresses).await?;
        Ok(addresses)
    }

    /// Gets the interface's device name.
    pub async fn get_interface_name(&self) -> Result<String> {
        let fnet_interfaces_ext::Properties {
            name,
            addresses: _,
            id: _,
            device_class: _,
            online: _,
            has_default_ipv4_route: _,
            has_default_ipv6_route: _,
        } = self.get_properties(fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses::OnlyAssigned).await?;
        Ok(name)
    }

    /// Gets the interface's MAC address.
    pub async fn mac(&self) -> fnet::MacAddress {
        let (port, server_end) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fidl_fuchsia_hardware_network::PortMarker>()
                .expect("create_proxy");
        self.get_port(server_end).expect("get_port");
        let (mac_addressing, server_end) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fidl_fuchsia_hardware_network::MacAddressingMarker>()
                .expect("create_proxy");
        port.get_mac(server_end).expect("get_mac");
        mac_addressing.get_unicast_address().await.expect("get_unicast_address")
    }

    /// Gets a stream of interface events yielded by calling watch on a new watcher.
    ///
    /// The returned watcher will only return assigned addresses.
    pub fn get_interface_event_stream(
        &self,
    ) -> Result<impl futures::Stream<Item = std::result::Result<fnet_interfaces::Event, fidl::Error>>>
    {
        let interface_state = self.realm.connect_to_protocol::<fnet_interfaces::StateMarker>()?;
        fnet_interfaces_ext::event_stream_from_state(
            &interface_state,
            fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses::OnlyAssigned,
        )
        .context("event stream from state")
    }

    async fn set_dhcp_client_enabled(&self, enable: bool) -> Result<()> {
        self.connect_stack()
            .context("connect stack")?
            .set_dhcp_client_enabled(self.id, enable)
            .await
            .context("failed to call SetDhcpClientEnabled")?
            .map_err(|e| anyhow!("{:?}", e))
    }

    /// Starts DHCP on this interface.
    pub async fn start_dhcp<D: DhcpClient>(&self) -> Result<()> {
        match D::DHCP_CLIENT_VERSION {
            DhcpClientVersion::InStack => self.start_dhcp_in_stack().await,
            DhcpClientVersion::OutOfStack => self.start_dhcp_client_out_of_stack().await,
        }
    }

    async fn start_dhcp_in_stack(&self) -> Result<()> {
        self.set_dhcp_client_enabled(true).await.context("failed to start dhcp client")
    }

    async fn start_dhcp_client_out_of_stack(&self) -> Result<()> {
        let Self { endpoint: _, realm, id, control, device_control: _, dhcp_client_task } = self;
        let id = NonZeroU64::new(*id).expect("interface ID should be nonzero");
        let mut dhcp_client_task = dhcp_client_task.lock().await;
        let dhcp_client_task = dhcp_client_task.deref_mut();

        let provider = realm
            .connect_to_protocol::<fnet_dhcp::ClientProviderMarker>()
            .expect("get fuchsia.net.dhcp.ClientProvider");

        provider.check_presence().await.expect("check presence should succeed");

        let client = provider.new_client_ext(id, fnet_dhcp_ext::default_new_client_params());
        let control = control.clone();
        let stack = self.connect_stack().expect("connect stack");
        let task = fnet_dhcp_ext::testutil::DhcpClientTask::new(client, id, stack, control);
        *dhcp_client_task = Some(task);
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Stops DHCP on this interface.
    pub async fn stop_dhcp<D: DhcpClient>(&self) -> Result<()> {
        match D::DHCP_CLIENT_VERSION {
            DhcpClientVersion::InStack => self.stop_dhcp_in_stack().await,
            DhcpClientVersion::OutOfStack => {
                self.stop_dhcp_out_of_stack().await;
                Ok(())
            }
        }
    }

    async fn stop_dhcp_in_stack(&self) -> Result<()> {
        self.set_dhcp_client_enabled(false).await.context("failed to stop dhcp client")
    }

    async fn stop_dhcp_out_of_stack(&self) {
        let Self { endpoint: _, realm: _, id: _, control: _, device_control: _, dhcp_client_task } =
            self;
        let mut dhcp_client_task = dhcp_client_task.lock().await;
        if let Some(task) = dhcp_client_task.deref_mut().take() {
            task.shutdown().await.expect("client shutdown should succeed");
        }
    }

    /// Adds an address, waiting until the address assignment state is
    /// `ASSIGNED`.
    pub async fn add_address(&self, subnet: fnet::Subnet) -> Result<()> {
        let (address_state_provider, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnet_interfaces_admin::AddressStateProviderMarker>()
                .context("create proxy")?;
        let () = address_state_provider.detach().context("detach address lifetime")?;
        let () = self
            .control
            .add_address(&subnet, &fnet_interfaces_admin::AddressParameters::default(), server)
            .context("FIDL error")?;

        let mut state_stream =
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::assignment_state_stream(address_state_provider);
        fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::wait_assignment_state(
            &mut state_stream,
            fnet_interfaces::AddressAssignmentState::Assigned,
        )
        .await?;
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Adds an address and a subnet route, waiting until the address assignment
    /// state is `ASSIGNED`.
    pub async fn add_address_and_subnet_route(&self, subnet: fnet::Subnet) -> Result<()> {
        let (address_state_provider, server) =
            fidl::endpoints::create_proxy::<fnet_interfaces_admin::AddressStateProviderMarker>()
                .context("create proxy")?;
        let () = address_state_provider.detach().context("detach address lifetime")?;
        let () = self
            .control
            .add_address(&subnet, &fnet_interfaces_admin::AddressParameters::default(), server)
            .context("FIDL error")?;

        let state_stream =
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::assignment_state_stream(address_state_provider);
        futures::pin_mut!(state_stream);
        let ((), ()) = futures::future::try_join(
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::wait_assignment_state(
                &mut state_stream,
                fnet_interfaces::AddressAssignmentState::Assigned,
            )
            .map(|res| res.context("assignment state")),
            self.add_subnet_route(subnet).map(|res| res.context("add subnet route")),
        )
        .await?;
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Removes an address and a subnet route.
    pub async fn del_address_and_subnet_route(
        &self,
        addr_with_prefix: fnet::Subnet,
    ) -> Result<bool> {
        let subnet = fnet_ext::apply_subnet_mask(addr_with_prefix);
        let entry =
            fnet_stack::ForwardingEntry { subnet, device_id: self.id, next_hop: None, metric: 0 };
        let () = self
            .connect_stack()
            .context("connect stack")?
            .del_forwarding_entry(&entry)
            .await
            .squash_result()
            .with_context(|| {
                format!(
                    "stack.add_forwarding_entry({:?}) for endpoint {} failed",
                    entry, self.endpoint.name
                )
            })?;
        self.control.remove_address(&addr_with_prefix).await.context("FIDL error").and_then(|res| {
            res.map_err(|e: fnet_interfaces_admin::ControlRemoveAddressError| {
                anyhow::anyhow!("{:?}", e)
            })
        })
    }

    /// Removes all IPv6 LinkLocal addresses on the interface.
    ///
    /// Useful to purge the interface of autogenerated SLAAC addresses.
    pub async fn remove_ipv6_linklocal_addresses(
        &self,
    ) -> Result<Vec<fnet_interfaces_ext::Address>> {
        let mut result = Vec::new();
        for address in self.get_addrs(fnet_interfaces_ext::IncludedAddresses::All).await? {
            let fnet_interfaces_ext::Address {
                addr: fnet::Subnet { addr, prefix_len },
                valid_until: _,
                assignment_state: _,
            } = &address;
            match addr {
                fidl_fuchsia_net::IpAddress::Ipv4(fidl_fuchsia_net::Ipv4Address { addr: _ }) => {
                    continue
                }
                fidl_fuchsia_net::IpAddress::Ipv6(fidl_fuchsia_net::Ipv6Address { addr }) => {
                    let v6_addr = net_types::ip::Ipv6Addr::from_bytes(*addr);
                    if !v6_addr.is_unicast_link_local() {
                        continue;
                    }
                }
            }
            let _newly_removed: bool = self
                .del_address_and_subnet_route(fnet::Subnet { addr: *addr, prefix_len: *prefix_len })
                .await?;
            result.push(address);
        }
        Ok(result)
    }

    /// Set configuration on this interface.
    ///
    /// Returns an error if the operation is unsupported or a no-op.
    ///
    /// Note that this function should not be made public and should only be
    /// used to implement helpers for setting specific pieces of configuration,
    /// as it cannot be guaranteed that this function is kept up-to-date with
    /// the underlying FIDL types and thus may not always be able to uphold the
    /// error return contract.
    async fn set_configuration(&self, config: fnet_interfaces_admin::Configuration) -> Result<()> {
        let fnet_interfaces_admin::Configuration {
            ipv4: previous_ipv4, ipv6: previous_ipv6, ..
        } = self
            .control()
            .set_configuration(&config.clone())
            .await
            .context("FIDL error")?
            .map_err(|e| anyhow!("set configuration error: {:?}", e))?;

        fn verify_config_changed<T: Eq>(previous: Option<T>, current: Option<T>) -> Result<()> {
            if let Some(current) = current {
                let previous = previous.ok_or_else(|| anyhow!("configuration not supported"))?;
                if previous == current {
                    return Err(anyhow!("configuration change is a no-op"));
                }
            }
            Ok(())
        }

        let fnet_interfaces_admin::Configuration { ipv4, ipv6, .. } = config;
        if let Some(fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv4Configuration {
            forwarding,
            multicast_forwarding,
            ..
        }) = ipv4
        {
            let fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv4Configuration {
                forwarding: previous_forwarding,
                multicast_forwarding: previous_multicast_forwarding,
                ..
            } = previous_ipv4.ok_or_else(|| anyhow!("IPv4 configuration not supported"))?;
            verify_config_changed(previous_forwarding, forwarding).context("IPv4 forwarding")?;
            verify_config_changed(previous_multicast_forwarding, multicast_forwarding)
                .context("IPv4 multicast forwarding")?;
        }
        if let Some(fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv6Configuration {
            forwarding,
            multicast_forwarding,
            ..
        }) = ipv6
        {
            let fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv6Configuration {
                forwarding: previous_forwarding,
                multicast_forwarding: previous_multicast_forwarding,
                ..
            } = previous_ipv6.ok_or_else(|| anyhow!("IPv6 configuration not supported"))?;
            verify_config_changed(previous_forwarding, forwarding).context("IPv6 forwarding")?;
            verify_config_changed(previous_multicast_forwarding, multicast_forwarding)
                .context("IPv6 multicast forwarding")?;
        }
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Enable/disable IPv6 forwarding on this interface.
    pub async fn set_ipv6_forwarding_enabled(&self, enabled: bool) -> Result<()> {
        self.set_configuration(fnet_interfaces_admin::Configuration {
            ipv6: Some(fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv6Configuration {
                forwarding: Some(enabled),
                ..Default::default()
            }),
            ..Default::default()
        })
        .await
    }

    /// Enable/disable IPv4 forwarding on this interface.
    pub async fn set_ipv4_forwarding_enabled(&self, enabled: bool) -> Result<()> {
        self.set_configuration(fnet_interfaces_admin::Configuration {
            ipv4: Some(fnet_interfaces_admin::Ipv4Configuration {
                forwarding: Some(enabled),
                ..Default::default()
            }),
            ..Default::default()
        })
        .await
    }

    /// Consumes this [`TestInterface`] and removes the associated interface
    /// in the Netstack, returning the device lifetime-carrying channels.
    pub async fn remove(
        self,
    ) -> Result<(fnetemul_network::EndpointProxy, Option<fnet_interfaces_admin::DeviceControlProxy>)>
    {
        let Self {
            endpoint: TestEndpoint { endpoint, name: _, _sandbox: _ },
            id: _,
            realm: _,
            control,
            device_control,
            dhcp_client_task: _,
        } = self;
        // For Network Devices, the `control` handle  is tied to the lifetime of
        // the interface; dropping it triggers interface removal in the
        // Netstack. For Ethernet devices this is a No-Op.
        std::mem::drop(control);
        Ok((endpoint, device_control))
    }

    /// Consumes this [`TestInterface`] and removes the underlying device. The
    /// Netstack will implicitly remove the interface and clients can expect to
    /// observe a `PEER_CLOSED` event on the returned control channel.
    pub fn remove_device(
        self,
    ) -> (fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::Control, Option<fnet_interfaces_admin::DeviceControlProxy>)
    {
        let Self {
            endpoint: TestEndpoint { endpoint, name: _, _sandbox: _ },
            id: _,
            realm: _,
            control,
            device_control,
            dhcp_client_task: _,
        } = self;
        std::mem::drop(endpoint);
        (control, device_control)
    }

    /// Waits for this interface to signal that it's been removed.
    pub async fn wait_removal(self) -> Result<fnet_interfaces_admin::InterfaceRemovedReason> {
        let Self {
            // Keep this alive, we don't want to trigger removal.
            endpoint: _endpoint,
            id: _,
            realm: _,
            control,
            dhcp_client_task: _,
            // Keep this alive, we don't want to trigger removal.
            device_control: _device_control,
        } = self;
        match control.wait_termination().await {
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::TerminalError::Fidl(e) => {
                Err(e).context("waiting interface control termination")
            }
            fnet_interfaces_ext::admin::TerminalError::Terminal(reason) => Ok(reason),
        }
    }
}

/// Get the [`socket2::Domain`] for `addr`.
fn get_socket2_domain(addr: &std::net::SocketAddr) -> fposix_socket::Domain {
    let domain = match addr {
        std::net::SocketAddr::V4(_) => fposix_socket::Domain::Ipv4,
        std::net::SocketAddr::V6(_) => fposix_socket::Domain::Ipv6,
    };

    domain
}

/// Trait describing UDP sockets that can be bound in a testing realm.
pub trait RealmUdpSocket: Sized {
    /// Creates a UDP socket in `realm` bound to `addr`.
    fn bind_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>>;
}

impl RealmUdpSocket for std::net::UdpSocket {
    fn bind_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        async move {
            let sock = realm
                .datagram_socket(
                    get_socket2_domain(&addr),
                    fposix_socket::DatagramSocketProtocol::Udp,
                )
                .await
                .context("failed to create socket")?;

            let () = sock.bind(&addr.into()).context("bind failed")?;

            Result::Ok(sock.into())
        }
        .boxed_local()
    }
}

impl RealmUdpSocket for fuchsia_async::net::UdpSocket {
    fn bind_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        std::net::UdpSocket::bind_in_realm(realm, addr)
            .and_then(|udp| {
                futures::future::ready(
                    fuchsia_async::net::UdpSocket::from_socket(udp)
                        .context("failed to create fuchsia_async socket"),
                )
            })
            .boxed_local()
    }
}

/// Trait describing TCP listeners bound in a testing realm.
pub trait RealmTcpListener: Sized {
    /// Creates a TCP listener in `realm` bound to `addr`.
    fn listen_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        Self::listen_in_realm_with(realm, addr, |_: &socket2::Socket| Ok(()))
    }

    /// Creates a TCP listener by creating a Socket2 socket in `realm`. Closure `setup` is called
    /// with the reference of the socket before the socket is bound to `addr`.
    fn listen_in_realm_with<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
        setup: impl FnOnce(&socket2::Socket) -> Result<()> + 'a,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>>;
}

impl RealmTcpListener for std::net::TcpListener {
    fn listen_in_realm_with<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
        setup: impl FnOnce(&socket2::Socket) -> Result<()> + 'a,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        async move {
            let sock = realm
                .stream_socket(get_socket2_domain(&addr), fposix_socket::StreamSocketProtocol::Tcp)
                .await
                .context("failed to create server socket")?;
            let () = setup(&sock)?;
            let () = sock.bind(&addr.into()).context("failed to bind server socket")?;
            // Use 128 for the listen() backlog, same as the original implementation of TcpListener
            // in Rust std (see https://doc.rust-lang.org/src/std/sys_common/net.rs.html#386).
            let () = sock.listen(128).context("failed to listen on server socket")?;

            Result::Ok(sock.into())
        }
        .boxed_local()
    }
}

impl RealmTcpListener for fuchsia_async::net::TcpListener {
    fn listen_in_realm_with<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
        setup: impl FnOnce(&socket2::Socket) -> Result<()> + 'a,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        std::net::TcpListener::listen_in_realm_with(realm, addr, setup)
            .and_then(|listener| {
                futures::future::ready(
                    fuchsia_async::net::TcpListener::from_std(listener)
                        .context("failed to create fuchsia_async socket"),
                )
            })
            .boxed_local()
    }
}

/// Trait describing TCP streams in a testing realm.
pub trait RealmTcpStream: Sized {
    /// Creates a TCP stream in `realm` connected to `addr`.
    fn connect_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>>;

    /// Creates a TCP stream in `realm` bound to `local` and connected to `dst`.
    fn bind_and_connect_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        local: std::net::SocketAddr,
        dst: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>>;

    /// Creates a TCP stream in `realm` connected to `addr`.
    ///
    /// Closure `with_sock` is called with the reference of the socket before
    /// the socket is connected to `addr`.
    fn connect_in_realm_with_sock<'a, F: FnOnce(&socket2::Socket) -> Result + 'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        dst: std::net::SocketAddr,
        with_sock: F,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>>;

    // TODO: Implement this trait for std::net::TcpStream.
}

impl RealmTcpStream for fuchsia_async::net::TcpStream {
    fn connect_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        addr: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        Self::connect_in_realm_with_sock(realm, addr, |_: &socket2::Socket| Ok(()))
    }

    fn bind_and_connect_in_realm<'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        local: std::net::SocketAddr,
        dst: std::net::SocketAddr,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<Self>> {
        Self::connect_in_realm_with_sock(realm, dst, move |sock| {
            sock.bind(&local.into()).context("failed to bind")
        })
    }

    fn connect_in_realm_with_sock<'a, F: FnOnce(&socket2::Socket) -> Result + 'a>(
        realm: &'a TestRealm<'a>,
        dst: std::net::SocketAddr,
        with_sock: F,
    ) -> futures::future::LocalBoxFuture<'a, Result<fuchsia_async::net::TcpStream>> {
        async move {
            let sock = realm
                .stream_socket(get_socket2_domain(&dst), fposix_socket::StreamSocketProtocol::Tcp)
                .await
                .context("failed to create socket")?;

            with_sock(&sock)?;

            let stream = fuchsia_async::net::TcpStream::connect_from_raw(sock, dst)
                .context("failed to create client tcp stream")?
                .await
                .context("failed to connect to server")?;

            Result::Ok(stream)
        }
        .boxed_local()
    }
}

fn truncate_dropping_front(s: Cow<'_, str>, len: usize) -> Cow<'_, str> {
    match s.len().checked_sub(len) {
        None => s,
        Some(start) => {
            // NB: Drop characters from the front because it's likely that a name that
            // exceeds the length limit is the full name of a test whose suffix is more
            // informative because nesting of test cases appends suffixes.
            match s {
                Cow::Borrowed(s) => Cow::Borrowed(&s[start..]),
                Cow::Owned(mut s) => {
                    let _: std::string::Drain<'_> = s.drain(..start);
                    Cow::Owned(s)
                }
            }
        }
    }
}